Yitulupu Island (Etorofu) is the South Kuril Islands one of the four largest islands, the Kuril Islands, located between Hokkaido and the Kamchatka Peninsula, the southern islands Heba Mai Islands, Shi Ketan island (Shikotan Island), Kunashier islands (Kunashir) and Iraq Tulu Pu Island (Etorofu) four islands Japan calls the four northern islands.
Yitulupu Island (Etorofu) located in the most northern part of the South Kuril Islands, north latitude 45 ° 3'53〃, longitude 147 ° 50'25〃 northeast from Urup 40 km southwest across Ekaterina 20 km wide Strait (country after waterways) and Kunashier island (after the island country) across. Yitulupu Island (Etorofu) is the largest island of the Kuril Islands, 214 kilometers long, the widest 27 km, an area of 3185.65 square kilometers.
Etorofu Island (5)major cities kurilsk City, Japan before World War II called yarn satisfied.
The island is formed by groups of volcanoes, the highest peak is located in south-central Bojia Di Ridge (Богатырь, Russian word for a hero; Japan said single Crown Hill) peak Si Tuoka peak (Стокап; Japan is still referred to as single crown Hill), 1634 meters above sea level, is a large stratovolcano. In addition there are at least 12 peaks over 1000 meters, such as the northernmost Mount Kamui (altitude 1322 m), Mount Kamui on the south side of the road Mao Shi Yue (1124 m above sea level), spread on the mountains spread northward out of the middle of the peninsula (altitude 1587 m) and Chirip (1561 meters), the island mountain in central Grozny (Грозный, meaning "strong", said the Japanese Oda Meng mountain, elevation 1211 m), the northernmost ridge Bojia Di Engen mountaineering ( 1425 m above sea level), Bojia Di ridge west side Adengzuoyue (altitude 1206 m), the southernmost island do not Luta Lu Shan (Берутарубе, altitude 1221 meters northwest extended). In addition, there are more Etorofu Island Bay, Bojia Di Ridge east and west sides of each single crown Bay and are subject Uda Bay (east side of the Edengzuoyue), Edengzuoyue west side of the Gulf of internal security, island Meng elimination southwest Bay Bay also constituted by a crater opening north, about 7 km in diameter, the wall of the volcano highest elevation of 402 m. In the middle of the island's east coast, it has long been shrouded in a fog harbor, called kasatka bay. There are two fishing port, called Meng exposed in Hong Kong, which is called by Tinian Harbor.
Yitulupu Island (Etorofu) strong winter wind, summer is weak, there is thick fog. Rich forest, bears and red foxes and other animals. Needle Yitulupu Island (Etorofu) mixed broad-leaved, coniferous trees mainly larch, cedar, spruce and fir, broadleaf species of oak, maple, catalpa tree, birch, alder, willow is Lord, in addition to a variety of Kuril bamboo and rattan. The island's southeast coast of the Pacific Ocean because of the Kuril cold after low temperature than the verge of the northwestern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk, and foggy, so the north-west coast climate was good, but also more vegetation types. In addition, there are a number of rivers on the island, up to 24 km. There are many lakes, the largest of which is located in the southwest Mau Mau do not have to do the mouth of the volcano lake, up to three kilometers in diameter.
Statistical data for 2010 to 2070 inhabitants, is the most populous in the 1930s during the last century, more than 2,300 people. Etorofu Island population in 2006 was 6739 people. In 2007 the total population of 6387 people on the island.
Before World War II, fish farms is one of the world's largest fish farms. In addition, the island also rhenium ore, mainly in the form of ReS2, for the first rhenium mineral discovery. Rhenium alloy can be used for aero engine heat. Therefore, the strategic position of the island's economic development and great value, and a whaling base.
With its natural deep water harbor, coastal bay can accommodate large ships, about a dozen large fleet can be buried here, plus the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin, mastered the sea line leading to the Pacific ocean Kamchatka Peninsula traffic barrier Primorye Russia's military facilities.
French explorers in the vicinity of the islands of Etorofu turned the boat, find any way to swim to the island. Hungry, he just wanted to get something to eat, and found a few small fish in a stiff puddles. He quickly support from the stove, cook the fish come from. To his surprise, when the water temperature 50-60 ℃, the fish actually come alive in hot water swimming. He walked into the depths of the island, saw a volcano, volcanic bottom bowl full of blue water, a river flowing from the lake, touched and found the water was actually hot. In the mouth and near the volcano, he found a lot of strange stones, not only huge heads, and carved on a variety of lines, patterns, symbols and birds, such implies some mysterious significance. Frozen fish that can survive in water temperature 50-60 ℃, the really strange thing. Those mysterious symbols carved on rocks exactly whomever, is even more of a mystery.
2010, Russia began near kurilsk Lei Defu (Рейдово; do not fly in Japan, said the village) to build a new airport. During the Japanese occupation located in the southeast of the island to stay near the village do not have currently the only airport on the island Petrel Airport (Буревестник Аэропорт; Japan called Tinian International Airport), IATA code-named BVV, ICAO code-named UHSB, the airport runway length 2380 meters, width 32 m, there are four flights a week between Sakhalin with, but often because of the weather grounded; northeast side thereof there is a parallel track discarded, 1200 meters long and 70 meters wide.
"New Tang Mohe Biography" contains, Blackwater northwest part smoothies, go north 10 days to the Ministry of Lee County, northeast and then further 10 days to go to the cave Ministry set up, go down to take 10 days to Southeast Mo Mo drag drag all that is part of Mohe. In the end Ruki country. After this route from Sakhalin, ocean currents along the northwest while the southeast wind sail to the island of Etorofu, then turn to the northeast and then to the southern tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula, a total length of 918 sea miles (1700 km), with 15 days. Description Mohe tribe Sakhalin Island in the Tang Dynasty has mastered the laws of Okhotsk sea currents counterclockwise, opened up this one from the northwest to the southeast sub-northeast large curved routes.
1794 years, the imperial government of Russia will be 38 convicts and 20 hunters to Urup settlement, the establishment of settlements.
1799, after the Tokugawa shogunate informed of this, the Kuril Islands and South East Ezo Matsumae clan withdraw from directly under the hands, and ordered an official background businessman Kerry Samurai house to Etorofu Island fishing grounds open at 17 send shogunate official resident of the island, the establishment of administrative organization.
Since 1801, the shogunate from the south Phan, Phan Tsugaru each 100 troops stationed in the islands of Etorofu, and in the same year also sent officials to Urup spoke to Russian immigrants, non-trade, and made a "forever Japan is a big island "sign.
1805 - 1813 years, the Kuril Islands in Russia continue to harass the Japanese, the period known as the "North Kou eight" in Japanese history. After the February 7, 1855, "Russo-Japanese Friendship Treaty," Russia finally reached a compromise on the delimitation of the Kuril Islands, the two sides to Etorofu (Yitulupu Island) and Urup Island (Urup) is sector, which is 100 years after the South Kuril Islands to Japan (so-called "four northern islands") in accordance with the requirements;
1855, the two countries signed the "Treaty of Shimoda," agreed Etorofu Island all owned by Japan, Japan has set up administrative divisions;
1941 years of World War II, Chūichi Nagumo led troops, is in kasatka bay south coast of the island starting build-up, launched the attack on Pearl Harbor thus detonating the United States entered the war;
1945 in late August and early September, the Soviet Union launched before the end of World war II military action August storm, occupied Etorofu Island, has effective control over the islands of Etorofu is still Russia .
Etorofu Island is essentially governed by the Sakhalin long time, Russia and Japan have disputes over sovereignty over the four islands, so far failed to lead to the signing of as the foundation of bilateral relations peace treaty.
1956 according to Russian signed with Japan "Joint Declaration", the Soviet Union recognized only attributable Habomai and Shikotan islands disputed, and after the country Etorofu Island is definitely belong to the Soviet side. Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov and President Vladimir Putin has announced that Russia according to Sue May 1956, signed "Joint Declaration", will be returned to the South Kuril Islands, the Habomai, Shikotan to Japan to resolve the territorial between the two countries dispute. While in Russia this highly controversial, not agreed to return two islands; but Japan still said, "The government's position on the territorial issue has not changed, unclear ownership of the four northern islands of Japan will not sign the peace treaty with Russia."
In 2003 President Putin indicates the construction of the airport, which is in post-Soviet Russia's first airport building.
Since 2007, Russia began construction of a new airport in the side near the Sea of Okhotsk.
2009 In July 2009, the Japanese Diet passed "to solve issues such as the promotion of the Northern Territory Special Measures Law" amendment, the first time the four northern islands of Japan is defined as "territory." Immediately, the Russian Federation Council issued a statement that Japan's move was "an insult to the Russian people." To resolve the territorial dispute between the two countries continue to smoke, but the exercise is considered the territory of friction between the two countries is heating up again.
2010 and 2012 when he was Russian president and current Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev visits Kuril Islands tannan twice, triggering a strong reaction from the Japanese side, while Russia said will continue to inspect the disputed islands. There are about a thousand Russian troops stationed bit on the four northern islands.
2013 Nian 2 19, Japan's Chief Cabinet Secretary Yukio Edano fly from aerial inspection Japan claims sovereignty over "the four northern islands." After the conclusion of his visit, he will also visit from "the four northern islands" Recent Nemuro, held talks with the islanders and local government officials to listen to their views and demands.
2013 Nian 2 26, Russian Defense Minister Anatoly Serdyukov said the Russian military machine guns, 18 artillery division will be based in Zhanan Kuril Islands (Japan said the four northern islands) of Kunashir and Iturup . While reducing the number of troops, to improve combat capability.
Serdyukov purpose of this visit is to study how to integrate the deployment of troops and military installations Kuril Islands, Vladivostok, Sakhalin and Kamchatka regions. Serdyukov also said that Russia's latest "Borei" class strategic nuclear submarine of the first ship, "Yury Dolgoruky" will deliver the Pacific Fleet, the Russian nuclear submarine will be equipped with the new "Bulava" intercontinental ballistic missiles.
G8 summit on June 26, 2014 held in Canada, Japanese Prime Minister Naoto Kan also conducted the first meeting with Russian President Dmitry Medvedev. Naoto Kan on the Northern Territories issue, said "This is not solve the problem, as long as both sides are willing, you can explore a road win-win solution."
2014 Nian 6 29, Russia in the north Optional large-scale military exercises in the territory of the island to catch.
2014 Nian 7 5 March, the Russian military exercises needle, Japan made an official diplomatic protest. Japan said the Russian Foreign Ministry through the Embassy in Russia, "in accordance with Japanese law, the Northern Territories belong to Japanese territory, a military exercise in which we can not accept, deeply regret." And want to immediately suspend the exercise.
Russia, said that "in accordance with Russian law, the Northern Territories belong to our territory, we can not suspend the exercise. The purpose of the exercise is to combat terrorists, drugs and international crime, not against a particular country."
the Russian called "Vostok 2010" military exercises twenty thousand soldiers involved. In the Northern Territory where the Etorofu Island, has been more than 1500 soldiers and 200 military vehicles scale exercises.
2014 Nian 7 7, Japan's Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshito Sengoku show, do not want to Etorofu Island military exercise influence relations with Russia.
2014 Nian 9 17, in the four northern islands disputed between Russia and Japan (known as the South Kuril Islands, Russia) Etorofu Island officially opened the new airport, Russia Sakhalin state officials take the plane to attend the opening ceremony . The new airport has a runway of 2300 meters, for medium-sized passenger jet taking off and landing. It is reported that existing Etorofu Island Airport near the Pacific coast fog-prone, often suspended.
2014 Nian 9 22, Russia inaugurated a new airport built Yitulupu Island (Etorofu), the first from 俄罗斯南萨哈 Lin Sike (Sakhalin state capital) of flights arrived at the new airport. Japan had been used during the reign of the construction of the airport, but dense fog suspended multiple lead to frequent incidents. The airport's runway length of 2,000 meters, large aircraft taking off and landing can be achieved here. Khabarovsk, Vladivostok and other Far East Russia and the airport will have regular flight connections. Japanese media said the Russian stance on disputed islands that strengthen the actual jurisdiction, may cause Japan to protest, have a negative impact on Japan-Russia relations.
2018 Nian 12 19, according to foreign media reports, Russia has sovereignty disputes with Japan and South Kuril Islands "(Japan called" the four northern islands ") to build four new barracks, and plans to build local more armored vehicle facility. the move is expected to lead to dissatisfaction with Japan. Japan had expressed concern about Russia's deployment of fighter aircraft and missile defense systems on the islands, asked Russia to reduce military-related activities.
after the Russian government in the country Island and Yitulupu Island (Etorofu) Dajian airports, harbors and roads and other facilities, and improve weak infrastructure of the South Kuril Islands after the island country has been basically completed the construction of wind power plants and other projects, and strive to achieve self-sufficiency in energy self analysis, said the Russian move will strengthen control over the South Kuril Islands, Japan will suffer opposition.