Chernokov counters


1934, Triazov found a unique in studying different liquids in different liquids and the phenomenon that occurred by liquid absorption Radiation effect, high-energy charged particle beams generate electromagnetic radiation during transparent medium, which is electromagnetic radiation, usually light blue. Prior to this, some people observed that when the radiation was pulled into the liquid, the weak light blue glow from the liquid was emitted, and they attributed it to fluorescence. However, Capoleum believes that he observed is not fluorescence. He observed that the radiation in water passed through the two distillation was observed, excluding the possibility of tiny impurities to produce fluorescence. He found that the radiation is polarized along the direction of incident, and the fast secondary electron generated by the incident radiation is the root cause of visible radiation. He verified this by using electronics from the radium radiation source. Rondun Cofiv published in 1934-1937 gives the general nature of this new radiation, but lacks a strict mathematical description of this effect.

1937, the two colleagues of Rondun Corvich Frank, 1908-1990) and Tam (Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm, 1895-1971) were given to Capolekov effect Theoretical explanation. They have proven that Runmov radiation is different from the radiation of accelerated charged particles. The radiation of the accelerating charged particles is a radiation effect of a single particle, and Runlunkov radiation is a collective effect generated by the binding charge and the induction current in the motion-resistant particles and the medium. They believe that the radiation discovered by Runcun Coff is due to the medium in the medium in the medium, and a strict mathematical description is given. Their theory has led to a variety of applications of Ruronware effect, especially in nuclear physics and high-energy physics research. Chelon Cofl, Frank and Tumm have shared the 1958 Nobel Physics Award. Frank later made a lot of in-depth research on Runlunkov radiation and predicted the production of radiation.


The radiation of Runmov light occurs in a cone surrounding the direction of the particle movement. In the water or in the glass, this surrounding angle is about 40 °. In the gas in the air, Collunak radiation will also appear because the refractive index is very close to 1, so the angle of the cone is small. The refractive index of water and glass is very large, so it is very strong to radiate the Kurlen Cofiv light.

Using the Rurrenkov effect can be made into a Runlon Coff counter, which is used to record the weak Runlunkov radiation emitted by charged particles. In the 1950s, with the application of Sensitive and fast responding photomultiplier, the utilization of Capoleum Coff light became a very influential technology. The Chernkov Counter consists of a radiator that produces Corunko and the photoelectric multiplication pipe detected such a light, which can record a flash caused by a single particle. Glass, water, transparent plastic can be used as a radiator. When the particles enter when entering the speed of light in the medium, Runlunkov radiation occurs, and then detected by an optics method. When the particle type is known, a certain emission angle corresponds to a certain particle energy, can detect high energy electrons, protons, mesons, and high energy γ rays in the accelerator or universe. The gas generated by the gaseous Colli is smaller than the solid or liquid, but because its refractive index is small, it can be used to detect a higher speed particles. The duration of Runlunkov radiation is only 10-10 seconds, coordinated with the fast photoelectric tube, and the Collikov counters can have a high time resolution.

Characteristics of Trumpkov radiation with electric particles in a homogeneous medium and the speed of charged particles are closely related, this relationship can be described in the following formula

they induce Lenkov radial radius radius is deviated from the pore diameter of the annular aperture, and the photomultiplier is not recorded in such particles induced. Therefore, this counter only records the speed of the particle bundle in βi-Δβi

to the cosmic rays, the Cavenekov detector, which appears in London, followed by Harfara set in Yorkshire, England. Available in the Haverah Park detector array has achieved excellent work results. These detectors consist of 12 meters deep closed large water cabinet. The photoelectric tube is soaked to underwater under water. When the air is passed, the electromagnetic component is mainly produced in the top of one-third of water, but the entire watent cabinet is very sensitive to the μm of the through ability. A detection signal is formed by the signal from the electromagnetic component to the μ sub-component.

High energy particles can also produce Runlunkov radiation in the atmosphere. Although the air refractive index is close to 1 (at a height of 1.00027), many of the particles in air spatula be produced in the air clusters of the air in the air mass. When Runlun Coff is quite weak (or because the refractive index is close to 1), there are many particles in the cluster, and the light is concentrated with a large mirror, and the night of the sunny light can also detect Calun. Kov radiation.

In gamma ray astronomy research, the Rurnev Counter often consists of a telescope for detecting a gamma ray above 10 megabytes. For gamma rays above several hundred megabytes, the gas taponkov counters are used, and it is used in combination with the scintillation counter, and there is a good direction, and the bottom is the advantage. Gamma photon greater than 106 megaburo produces air massage in the atmosphere, and its high energy positive and negative electrons can make the atmosphere into radiators, producing tapikov radiation, and the direction of the high-energy gamma photon enters the atmosphere, can be on the ground Explosing with an optical multiplier, forming a unique ritual Corghov counter telescope.


The radiation medium can be gas, liquid, and solid, but should have optical characteristics of radiant quasithum, good transparency, and require them to have a low fluorescent background.

Speed ​​resolution Δβ / β and detection efficiency are the most important performance indicators of the Chelenov counter. Typical gas threshold Cheriff counters are about 10 to 10 speed resolutions under sufficiently high probe efficiency conditions. Gas Differential Chernov Counter, if the color difference correction of the optical system, the speed resolution can reach 10, and there is sufficiently high detection efficiency.

The checkekov counter has played an important role in the history of nuclear physics and particle physical development. It is an extensive particle detector for experimental physics.

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