The four phases of the regenerative period
The cycle of capitalist regeneration usually includes four stages: crisis, depression, recovery and high. Each stage has its own characteristics and functions.
Crisis - also known as panic, is the basic phase of the capitalist regeneration cycle.
The essence of the economic crisis is relatively overproduced. Its highlight is: commodity disadogens, market shrinkage, credit relationship, stock prices have fallen; enterprises have a large number of abundance, production has declined; the number of unemployed people has increased, the labor people are hard, and the whole socio-economic life is falling into a chaotic state. Among them, production declines and unemployment surges are the main markers in the crisis stage. The asset class scholars refer to the crisis "economic recession", lie in the essence of the economic crisis, covering the inevitability of the inherent contradiction of capitalism. The crisis is both the end of the last cycle and the starting point of the new cycle. The role of the crisis is that the proportion of the social regeneration in a violent destruction has reached the temporary balance, so that the capitalist regeneration has continued. When the crisis lasts for a while, the production decline has reached the "Valley End". The contradiction between the product production is alleviated with the demand for payment capabilities, and the crisis stage is transferred to the depression stage.
Depression - Stamping Stage in the Capitalist Reproduction Period.
The significant feature of the crisis has passed the crisis that the production is no longer decline, the enterprise stops being closed; however, the social economy has not woke up from the attack of the crisis, the production is weak, the business is not high, and the money is flooded, Credit is sluggish, the number of unemployed is still existent, and the whole social economy presents a depression scene. In order to get rid of this dilemma, capitalists have strikingly seeking ways from reducing costs in addition to continuing auction or destroying excessive goods to obtain excess profits. On the one hand, they are lowered by workers' wages, strengthen exploitation of workers; on the other hand, improve technology, update fixed capital, so that the conditions are prepared for transition to the recovery phase. And when social production begins to pick up, the depression phase is transferred to the recovery phase.
Recovery - The economic recovery phase in the capitalist regeneration cycle.
At this stage, capitalists have started a large-scale investment and fixed capital update, causing the expansion of production materials and labor demand, driving an increase in the demand for consumption data, thus driving the entire social production and gradual recovery and Development. The main features of the recovery phase are: production gradually rebound, the number of employed people has gradually increased, and social purchases begins to increase. The market capacity begins to expand. The capital turnover is accelerated, and the company's profit growth, business credit and bank credit are gradually active, so that social production recovery and development Level before the crisis. This is prepared for the transition to the high stage. When social production reaches the highest point before the crisis, the recovery phase is transferred to the high stage.
is high - also known as prosperity, is the preparation stage of the new crisis in the capitalist regeneration cycle.
The main feature is: the production is rapidly expanded, the number of employed people increases, the market capacity expansion, the sharp increase in the profits, the business is abnormal, and the credit is excessively expanded, the social economy presents "prosperity" scene. Bare economics make these phenomena often called "boom". In fact, this "phenomenon of boom is just a sign of the new crisis. Social production exceeds the highest point before the crisis, quickly expands, and quickly exceeds the needs of the labor people have payment capabilities. At the same time, commercial speculation The false demand masks the real situation of social purchases, and the false prosperity caused by credit expansion also masks the seriousness of production and consumption. As long as there is an infarction of commodity circulation in some important sectors, it will become a sudden outbreak of the new economic crisis. Engels used to depict this process: "The movement gradually accelerates, slowly turning into fast steps, industrial fast steps into running, running into industry, business, credit and speculative real obstacles in the rampage, final, after passing A few desperate jumps re-collapsed abyss "(with the first, Volume 3, page 316).
The four stages of the capitalist regeneration cycle are interconnected. Every stage is from one before In the stage, it has been prepared for the latter stage. Among them, the crisis stage is the decisive stage of the cycle. Without the crisis stage, capitalist regeneration cannot continue, it is the basis of capitalist regeneration cycle. Depression stage It is essentially the extension of the crisis, the recovery phase and the high stage are just the preparation stage of the new crisis.
Substance of the renewable period "Bastrich"
Capital regeneration can rise from the crisis to high, then From the cyclical cycle of hiking to the crisis, there is a material condition that is operated. This material condition is a fixed capital update. The fixed capital turnover cycle is a process for many years, and the turnover is a lot of flow capital. Second .K. Marx said: "This consisting of several years of interconnected turnover includes a number of years (capital is bound by its fixed components within this cycle), resulting in a substance foundation for a periodic crisis." ("Complete Works of Marx Engers" Volume 24, page 207). The cycle of fixed capital has become the material foundation of the capitalist reproduction cycle, including two aspects of meaning:
1 is the capitalist economy to get rid of the crisis Substance conditions are provided. Because after the crisis, when the excess commodities dissipate, capitalists have to obtain profits in the case of social purchasing power, and to deal with competitors, they must update old equipment or new investments in advance. Reduce costs and improve labor productivity. At the same time, due to a large amount of tour capital in society, the interest rate is very low, it is also convenient to obtain investment loans. Therefore, each crisis is always the starting point of large-scale new investment. The capitalist economy passed the large scale of the capitalist economy Update, you get rid of the crisis, get out of the depression, gradually transition to recovery and high stage.
2 to create a material premise for the next crisis. The technology development and technology development of a large-scale update of fixed capital. Production expansion, not only increases social products, and leads to the sharp increase in unemployment, social production is rapidly expanded on the basis of strengthening the exploitation of employment, which makes capitalism basic contradictory perspective, which inevitably explosive new dangers machine.
However, the cycle update of fixed capital is only the material conditions that cause the periodic economic crisis, not the fundamental reason. If there is no capitalist system, the improvement of labor productivity has increased the development of labor productivity, which can be used to increase the purchasing power of the working people, and improve the substances and cultural living standards of the entire society accordingly, and will not lead to economic crises.
The occurrence of renewable periodicity and development of development of capitalist production is actually a history of a periodic outbreak of economic crisis. As early as the end of the 18th century, the United Kingdom has undergone partial production overcapacity in individual industrial sectors. Since capitalism has not yet established a substance technology based on social and large production, the emergence of the crisis is also partially, and the alternation of the crisis is just a rule. After the British Industry Revolution, the establishment of machinery industry and socialization, and established capitalist production methods. With the development of production and socialization, the basic contradiction of capitalism has become increasingly launched and tends to be sharp. The fixed capital will become a substance foundation of capitalism re-production. At this time, the economic crisis has become a periodically regularly. Phenomenon.
In the capitalist stage of free and competition, the first universal production overflowing economic crisis was built in the UK in 1825. Later, in 1836, the UK also took place in the United Kingdom and woven to the United States. Due to the close and economic relationship between trade exchanges between capitalist countries, the economic crisis in one country quickly spreads other countries to form a worldwide economic crisis, so that the cycle of the crisis has the same period. From 1847 to 1848, 1857, 1873, 1882, in 1890, the world economic crisis has been issued successively. At this stage, the cycle of capitalist regeneration is typically manifested once every ten years.
Entering the monopoly capitalist stage, the 1900 world economic crisis is a turning point in the history of modern monopoly. Then, 1907 broke out the world economic crisis. After the First World War, the capitalist world has experienced the economic crisis from 1920 to 1921, 1933 and 1937 to 1938 (later being interrupted by the Second World War). At this stage, due to the rule of monopoly capital, the contradiction between production and market is intensified, the cycle of capitalist regeneration is shortened by about ten years, and the destructiveness of the crisis phase is increasingly serious. Among them, the world economic crisis in 1929 to 1933 is the most profound, most serious in the past crisis. The crisis lasts for four years, so that the industrial output of the entire capitalist world will fall by 46%, and the crisis is turned into special depression. There is no new high-rise and high rise.
Main Features of the Post-Word Regeneration Cycle
After the Second World War, due to the changes in economic conditions at home and abroad, especially due to the economic intervention of national monopoly capitalism Strengthening the imbalance of capitalist development, making certain changes in the periodic movement of capitalist regeneration, its main performance is:
Regeneration cycle shortening
Second World War Before, the capitalist reproduction cycle is generally around 10 or 8 years. In the post-war period, the same crisis and the non-scheduled crisis were calculated, and the United States took a seventh crisis from 1948 to 1980, with the six cycles, the average period of 5 years and 4 months, Japan is 4 years. For 10 months, the United Kingdom is 4 years and 8 months. France is 7 years. Siece is 5 years and 7 months. Italy is 5 years and 4 months. The economic cycle is significantly shortened than the war (see economic crisis ). The main reason for the shortening of cycle is due to the development of the national monopolistic capitalism, the bourgeois government strengthens the intervention economy, so that the contradiction between the production of excess of the crisis and the contradiction between the market is not fully launched, and it has been constantly accumulating. Causes the crisis frequent eruption. At the same time, due to the stack of the scientific and technological revolution, the decreasury limit of fixed capital updates is reduced, which also provides a substance foundation for the shortening of the renewable period.
Period All stage deformation
The boundary of the depression phase and the recovery phase is not obvious. Before the war, especially the capitalist stage of free competition, the boundaries of the four stages of the regenerative period were more obvious. After the war, under the rapid development of national monopoly capitalism, due to the expansion policy in the crisis and the depression of the bourgeois, the four phases of the renewable period will be more than the past. That is obvious. The periodic morphology is: the crisis is not in the past, the boundaries of the two stages of depression and recovery are unclear, the economic rebound is weak, and the high economic growth is slow. After the war period cycle, the foundation of the four phases of the composition cycle did not change the basis of the fact that the capitalist contradiction is deepened.
Production crisis and inflation interleaves in front of the World War, in the second World War, in the crisis and depression stage, generally accompanied by inflexion, prices plummeted. During the post-war period, due to the bourgeois government vigorously promoted the deficit fiscal policy and expansion credit policy, the vicious inflation, plus private monopoly, monopolizing the capital group controlled monopoly prices to compensate for the damage caused by the crisis, causing the price during the crisis Non-but not plummeted, there is an abnormal phenomenon that continues to rise.
The periodicity of capitalist regeneration reflects the confrontation contradiction between capitalist productivity and production relations. The characteristics of the reproduction period after the Second World War show that the development of national monopoly capitalism has serious disturbances in cycle motion, although the impact and shock during the crisis is relatively reduced, but the economic rebound after the crisis has rebounded and produces fluctuations, but further proves The economic crisis is the crisis of the capitalist system. To eliminate the economic crisis, it must eliminate the capitalist system.