German and Austrian coalition breakthrough
1917 In September 2009, the Eleventh Battle of Yi Songzuo River, the Austrian army was heavy creative, but outnumbered, the front shifting, forced to help the Germans. 7 German divisions rushed rush to the rescue, and with the Austrian co-edited eight divisions of the 14th Army, commanded by German General Otto von Bi Luo. October 24th, Germany 14th Army (seven German divisions secluded area gathered in Villach (Austria-Hungary) Belo command of General Austrians eight divisions, 1,922 guns and mortars, 1000 poison gas applicator) over 6 hours artillery preparation (which cast a lot of gas bombs), the group intended to several assault on the lot between Pulai Zuo, Thor Camino's second army (25 divisions, 3,000 guns and mortar) attack. Although the advantages of mountainous terrain and army troops in favor of a second defense, but the first echelon only four divisions, thus very effective against enemy defensive front will soon be broken. German 14th Army at Caporetto area Yi Songzuo crossed the river, to the development of offensive Udine. Subsequently, the support of the 14th Army of the Austro-Hungarian Army 2 and 10 also to the offensive. Italian Second Army suffered heavy losses, retreated to the rear position.
Italian Army's strategic retreat
Behind the Italian Third Army has also been the enemy assault. Italian Army commander, General Cardona worry about the Italian Army surrounded wiped out, then on October 27 commands all the right-wing forces to retreat. Austro-Hungarian Empire, the 10th Army offensive and thereafter (from 29 October) the 11th Army's offensive forced the Italian Army Karni clusters and 4th Army retreat. As a result, the Italian Army began a comprehensive strategic retreat on more than 300 kilometers front, the Italian Army headquarters lost the ability to command troops, soldiers lost heavy weapons, artillery and military supplies evacuated to the rear. Cardona tried Tagliamento River defense organization, not only ineffective, the Italian anti-2nd and 3rd Army rout. November 2nd night, coalition forces crossed the Oder Tagliamento, forcing the remnants of the Italian Army to withdraw Piave. November 9, the Italian Army last batch of troops crossed the river. Italian Army's defeat and retreat caused by the Anglo-French Joint Command of extreme panic, was made to Italy dispatched 11 divisions (five divisions British, French 6 divisions). With the support of British and French troops, intended to curb the military offensive in coalition Oder River Piave.
Cardona immediately because of his incompetence was dismissed, the new commander Armando Diaz (Armando Diaz) immediately reorganization of the army and defense in depth to stop the enemy advance and mobile reserve, front to make around Pia Wei River stabilized at the end of November stabilized the front.
Caporetto fighting in World War I is the largest-ever mountain fighting. Italian party will only send troops to 1.4 million, its highest density configuration artillery in World War I (German 15th Army artillery and mortars positive average configuration 207.7-259 door per kilometer).
In Caporetto war, the Italian 2nd and 3rd Army fail miserably, 30,000 casualties, captured 26.5 million loss artillery 3152, 1732 mortars, machine guns, 3000 , as well as a large number of military supplies, but retains its military, lay the foundation for a counterattack.
Odd coalition concentrating a superior force, take a sudden assault, successfully broke through the defense of mountain positions in the theater, 100 km depth Northern Italy, and occupied nearly 14,000 square kilometers of land.
Austria-Hungary and Germany in Caporetto offensive Despite these victories, but the Allies did not change the overall strategic situation. The cost was 11 times Italian first victory in the Battle of the River Yi Songzuo obtained, he returned to the hands of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Italian army was hit once, leading to low morale, but the Italian still tenacious shore of the opponents hit.