## Characters experiences

Pascal was born in Clermont Puy de Dôme in the Auvergne region of France, from childhood physical weakness, year-old mother died . Father Yi Jina (1588 --1651) was a small elite, held the position of magistrate, was a mathematician and Latin scholar. Blaise Pascal is Jacqueline Pascal and two other sisters (only one of them, clean Burt lived childhood) brother. After her mother died, my father resigned from the post of judges.

1623 Nian 6 Yue 19 birth in the French city of Clermont-Ferrand, Puy de Dome. Pascal no formal schooling. His mother died when he was four years old, the highly educated, as a father and two sisters government officials responsible for his education and training. His father was a respected mathematician, in its carefully education, Pascal hours proficient in Euclidean geometry is, he independently discovered the theorem of Euclid before 32, but the order is completely correct. After the 12-year-old found alone "angles of a triangle is equal to 180 degrees," he began under the tutelage of his father to study mathematics. 1631 Pascal with the family moved to Paris. Pascal's father found great promise in his 16 years old, his heart full of love to participate in the Paris mathematicians and physicists Group (formerly Paris Academy of Sciences) academic activities, make him an eye-opener, Pascal wrote at the age of 17 a high level of mathematics "conic section on" a text, this is his comprehensive study Dezhaerge results for projective geometry classic work.

1631 Nian Pascal family moved to Paris. Yi Jina their own education Pascal and often class geometer conversation with Paris as Malan Mason, Gassendi, and Descartes, who Dezhaerge, small Pascal also showed high at this time of mathematically gifted. 11 years old Pascal wrote a small article about the relationship between vibration and sound, which makes Yi Jina worried that he will affect the learning Greek and Latin, then forbade him to study mathematics before the age of 15. One day, Yi Jina found a small Pascal (then 12 years old) with a piece of coal an independent proof of the corners of the triangle is equal to two right angles to the wall. Since then, Pascal was allowed to learn Euclidean geometry.

Pascal small works of Dezhaerge of particular interest. Under the influence of Dezhaerge thinking, Pascal 16-year-old wrote "On the conic." Most of the book has been lost, but an important conclusion to be retained, namely "Pascal's Theorem." Descartes this book greatly appreciated, but can not believe this is from a 16-year-old boy's hands. 1641 Pascal and with the family moved to Rouen. When between 1642 to 1644 to help his father to do the tax calculations, Pascal invented the adder, which is the world's first calculator, now on display in museums in France. He accepted religious doctrine, but remains committed to scientific experiments events between 1653, Pascal focus research on vacuum and hydrostatic made a series of major achievements.

1647 years to return to Paris to live. According to him Torricelli's theory, a lot of experiments, experiments in 1647 had shocked the whole of Paris, he said to himself: his experiments fundamental guiding ideology is against the traditional concept of "Nature abhors a vacuum," the.

1648 he published a paper on the issue of vacuum. 1648 Pascal conceived and carried out experiments on atmospheric pressure in the same area at different heights strength measurements, found along with reduced height, atmospheric pressure increased regularity. In the past few years, Pascal continue to make new discoveries in the experiment, and there are a number of major inventions, such as the invention of the syringe, the hydraulic press, improved Torricelli mercury barometer and so on. 1649 to 1651, Pascal with his collaborator Pierre (Perier) detailed measurements of atmospheric pressure changes in the same location, a pioneer in the use of barometer weather forecast. 1651 Pascal began to sum up the results of his experiments, to 1654 wrote the "air and liquid balance weight papers", was published in 1663. After Pascal into theological studies in 1655 he entered the theological center draped special barrier Al. His departure from the skepticism that the emotional and rational knowledge is not reliable, to arrive at the belief overriding conclusion.

1646 years ago Pascal are a Catholic. Due to an illness of his father, so that he had contact with a more esoteric way religious beliefs, a great influence on his later life. Pascal and mathematician Fermat communication, they work together to solve a problem one high society gambler and amateur philosopher sent, he was not sure when he bet three dice throw some combination appears Why do you always lose money. In the process they solve this problem, the foundation of the modern theory of probability. His short life made many contributions to mathematics and physics contributions in the maximum. In 1646 he To test the Italian physicist Galileo and Torricelli's theory, produced a mercury barometer, atmospheric experiments repeatedly carried out in Paris can look down at the summit of Clermont-Ferrand, fluid dynamics and Research hydrostatic paved the way. In order to improve his experiment Torricelli's barometer, he invented in Pascal's law on the basis of a syringe, and the creation of a hydraulic press.

His research and writings on vacuum problem, and more to improve his popularity. He grew weak constitution, leaving the sick because of overwork. Yet it is his sick leave between 1651 ~ 1654, nervously scientific work, written in the papers about fluid balance, weight and air density and arithmetic triangle, after a paper form the basis of probability theory. In the years 1655 to 1659 in also wrote many religious writings. In his later years, it was suggested that he study results for cycloid made out, so he was immersed in the scientific interest, but since February 1659, sicker, so he can not work properly, and be content with a devout religious life . Finally, he died in great pain in.

1662 Nian 8 Yue 19 Ri Pascal, died 39 years old. After the Memorial human Pascal, named after his pressure unit "Pascal", referred to as "Pa."

## The main contribution

** physically **

1653 Pascal's law presented in the fluid pressure can be transmitted, i.e. a so-called Pascal's law. Hydraulic press and made use of this principle. He also made water injector (Syringe), Galileo and inheritance E. Torricelli atmospheric experiments that the air pressure varies with height. International System of Units of pressure units Pa [ska] that is its name names.

** mathematics **

Pascal mathematical attainments. Apart from outstanding contributions to probability theory and other aspects, the most prominent is the famous theorem of Pascal - made in his "treatise on conic" in. Pascal theorem is a theorem of projective geometry important, i.e., "Third inscribed hexagon opposite side of the intersection of the conic collinear."

In algebra, he published many papers on arithmetic progressions and binomial coefficients, discovered the binomial expansion coefficients law style, the famous "Pascal's triangle." (In our country called "Triangle"), he co-founded with Fermat basis of probability theory and combinatorics, probability theory and draws on a series of issues solution. He studied the cycloid problem, we come to different common method of finding the curve area and center of gravity. He calculated the trigonometric functions and tangent points, the earliest introduction of elliptic integrals.

## main works

conic monograph (1639)

on vacuum new experiment (1647)

arithmetic triangle (1653)

book outsiders actuator (1656-57)

geometry spirit (1657 or 1658)

in the form of a written signature (1661)

Pensees (did not finish on death)