Historical evolution

The term Belarus ("White Rus") first appeared in the 1135 chronicles.

In 862 AD, Polotsk Castle was built on Belarusian soil.

From the 9th to the 12th centuries, the Polotsk Principality was formed around the castle.

The Belarusian language was formed in the first half of the 13th century.

From the mid-13th century to the end of the 18th century, it belonged to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Lithuania-Poland successively.

Incorporated into the Russian Empire since the 18th century.

In March 1918, the pro-German Belarusian General Assembly Executive Committee announced the establishment of the Belarusian People’s Republic in the German Occupied Area.

In January 1919, the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic was established, and on December 30, 1922, it established the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union) together with the Russian Federation, Transcaucasian Federation, and Ukraine.

On July 27, 1990, the Supreme Soviet of White adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty.

On September 19, 1991, it was renamed the Republic of Belarus, or Belarus for short, and joined the CIS as a founding country on December 8.

Natural environment

Regional location

Belarus is located in the center of Europe and is a landlocked country. The countries bordering it are Russia, Latvia, Poland, Lithuania and Ukraine . The total area of ​​Belarus is 207,600 square kilometers, with a distance of 560 kilometers from north to south and 650 kilometers from east to west. The territory area ranks 13th in Europe.


Belarus is located in the Eastern European Plain. The territory is low and flat, wetlands, with an average altitude of 160 meters. The highest peak is Dzerzhinskaya Mountain (Dzerzhinskaya). It is 345 meters above sea level.

Climatic characteristics

The climate in Belarus is a temperate continental climate, with mild and humid territory, with annual precipitation ranging from 550 mm to 700 mm. The average temperature in January is -6℃, and the average temperature in July is 18℃.

Hydrological distribution

There are more than 20,000 large and small rivers throughout Belarus, with a total length of 90,600 kilometers. The main rivers are the Dnieper, Pripyat, West Dvina, Neman, and Sozh, of which 6 rivers exceed 500 kilometers.

Belarus has 10,000 lakes with a total area of ​​2,000 square kilometers. The largest Lake Narach has an area of ​​79.6 square kilometers and enjoys the reputation of "the country of ten thousand lakes". There are also more than 130 reservoirs.

Natural resources

Minerals and energy resources

As of 2014, more than 10,000 minerals have been identified in Belarus, the most important of which is petroleum. Associated natural gas, peat, lignite and flammable slate, potash, rock salt, various building materials (stone for construction, facing stone, materials for the production of cement and lime, sand and gravel for construction and glass, various Clay, fresh water, mineral water. In addition, there are iron ore, gypsum, precious metals, apatite and aluminum ore, etc.).

Water resources

Belarus is rich in water resources, with more than 20,000 large and small rivers and more than 10,000 lakes. It is known as the "country of ten thousand lakes".

Forest resources

Belarus has nearly 8 million hectares of forest, with a coverage rate of 39%. It is second only to Russia in the Commonwealth of Independent States. The main tree species is coniferous forest, the main tree species is pines, followed by spruce, birch, oak and so on. The Belovezh Nature Forest Reserve, covering an area of ​​1165 square kilometers, enjoys a high reputation in Europe. The timber reserves are about 1.093 billion cubic meters, and about 5 million tons of all kinds of timber are exported every year.

Administrative divisions


Belarus is divided into Minsk, Brest, Vitebsk, Gomel, Grodno, Mogilev has 6 Oblasts and Minsk, the capital city with the status of an independent administrative region. It consists of 118 districts, 106 cities, 25 municipal districts, 106 towns, and 1456 villages.

The capital

Minsk is located in the central part of Belarus. It was established as a state in 1938 and its capital is Minsk. It is the capital of Belarus with a population of 1.92 million (as of April 1, 2014). The political, economic and cultural center of the country. It was almost razed to the ground during the Second World War, and it was rebuilt after the war and became an important industrial center of Belarus. Minsk has a number of higher education institutions, including the Belarusian National University, in addition to famous circuses, opera houses and ballet theaters. Belarus is rich in beautiful women, and Minsk is the representative. Minsk also has many attractions such as Victory Square, the Isle of Tears, the National Museum of the History of the Great Patriotic War, the Cathedral of the Holy Spirit, the Belovyzh National Forest Park, and the Glory Hill. The aircraft carrier Minsk is named after Minsk.

National symbol

National flag

The national flag of Belarus is rectangular with a ratio of length to width of 2:1. The flag has a wide red stripe on the half and a green narrow stripe on the lower half. On the left side of the flag is a red and white vertical stripe with ethnic characteristics. Red represents the flag of the Belarusian Legion that defeated the invaders and symbolizes the glorious past. Green represents forests and fields, and symbolizes the thriving land and hope for the future. The pattern on the left represents the continuation of the traditional culture and spirit of the nation, and the unity of the people.

National Emblem

At the very center of the National Emblem of Belarus is the territory of Belarus, superimposed on the golden and radial sunlight. The source of the beam is a sun pattern, but half of it is obscured by a larger earth pattern. This earth pattern is also only half, and the entrance surface shows part of the Eurasian continent and waters in purple and blue respectively. The left and right sides of the national emblem are surrounded by wheat stalks with flowers. The flowers on the left are clover plants; the flowers on the right are flax flowers. Around the wheat stalks on both sides is a long ribbon. The ribbon is red and green horizontally like the Belarusian flag; the middle part of the ribbon is written with the words "Belarusian Republic" Belarusian, and the font is golden yellow. Just above the top of the national emblem is a red five-pointed star. The national emblem symbolizes Belarus’s ancient belief in hard work, the victory of justice, and the confidence to stand proudly among the nations of the world.

On January 7, 2021 local time, the Belarusian National Law website issued Decree No. 83-3, which revised the previous Decree on the “National Emblem of the Republic of Belarus” and issued a new version of the National Emblem. In the new version of the national emblem, the outline of the Belarusian country has become golden instead of green. The five-pointed star above the national emblem has also changed. The previous five-pointed star has obvious edges. In addition, the pattern of the earth on the new version of the national emblem has also been changed, the lines of longitude and latitude have been adjusted, and the direction and color of the earth have also been modified. The European region has more patterns displayed than before.

National Anthem

"We Belarusians"

The meaning of the lyrics: the wind of freedom sings the song of freedom for your name, and the green forest for you with a cordial voice Call, the sun sings your reputation with flames, and the stars are pouring faith in scattered forces. In the face of storms, difficulties, and power, you sprout and wait, and when you initiate the flood of life on the sacred land, you face the unreturned flood. You are suffering from flooding, and the glorious legend of life has crossed the fields, forests and mountains. The native flowers and trees weave a brilliant crown, gleaming like the feathers of a swan. The poet’s song echoes for you. With thousands of years of rise and growth, today’s leap is unstoppable, and we are brave in the face of the mysterious future. How conspicuous you are in the sun, the lovely sparks, calmly weaving the dream of the future, the golden dress; even though it is your scruples to be strong, you are afraid that there is no one nearby, and there are no thorns on the road. The breeze of revival has blown across every corner, and with infinite spirit, the day of a better and happy motherland has arrived!

Population Nationality


9.3978 million (April 2020).


Belarus is a multi-ethnic country, with more than 100 ethnic groups in its territory, of which 83.7% are Belarusian; Russian ethnicity is the second largest ethnic group in Belarus, accounting for 8.3%. The states of Belarus are mainly distributed in the eastern and central regions. The Polish ethnic group is the third largest ethnic group in Belarus. They are distributed in the Brest and Rodno states bordering Poland, accounting for 3.1%.



The presidential system was implemented in 1994. In July of the same year, Lukashenko was elected as the first president for a five-year term. In 1996, the power struggle between the President and the 13th Supreme Soviet intensified, and President Lukashenko ordered a referendum. According to the results of the referendum on November 24 of the same year, the activities of the 13th Supreme Soviet was terminated, and a new bicameral parliament was formed at the same time. President Lukashenko's term of office was extended to 2001. In September 2001, President Lukashenko reorganized the government, integrated the parliament, and established a presidential vertical leadership system. On October 17, 2003, the White Parliament held the election of the third National Assembly (lower house). At the same time, it held a referendum on whether the current President Lukashenko can participate in the next presidential election and the cancellation of the constitutional provisions restricting the president’s term. 79.4% of voters agreed to abolish the constitution's stipulation that the term of office of the president shall not exceed two terms, and support Lu's participation in the 2006 presidential election. In March 2006, Lukashenko was elected president again with a support rate of 82.6%. On December 20, 2010, Lukashenko started his 16th year in the presidency of Belarus with 80% of the vote.


The constitutional amendment proposed by the president was passed in a referendum on November 24, 1996, and took effect on November 27. The referendum on October 17, 2004 decided to abolish the restriction that Article 81 of the Constitution stipulates that the term of office of the president shall not exceed two consecutive terms. The constitution stipulates: the implementation of the presidential system and the separation of powers; the president is the head of state and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and is directly elected by the voters. The term is five years and cannot be re-elected for more than two consecutive terms; the president has the power to determine a referendum, dissolve the parliament, and determine all levels Parliamentary election, appointment of the prime minister (subject to approval by the lower house of parliament), appointment and dismissal of all government members below the deputy prime minister, appointment and dismissal of all judicial institutions, leaders of the central election and referendum committee, decision on the resignation of the government, etc.; when the president is vacant or unable to perform his duties, The prime minister temporarily assumes the office of president.


The Belarusian Parliament is called the National Assembly. It consists of the House of Republic (Upper House) and the House of Representatives (Lower House). Each term is 4 years. The current National Assembly is the seventh and was formed in November 2019. There are a total of 64 representatives in the House of Republic, of which 56 are elected by the local councils of 6 states and 1 city (Minsk) by secret ballot, and the other 8 are appointed by the president. Chairman Natalia Kochanova was elected in December 2019. The House of Representatives is composed of 110 deputies, who are directly elected by secret ballot. Chairman Vladimir Andrechenko was elected in December 2019.


On June 4, 2020, President Lukashenko of Belarus appointed members of the new government. Roman Golovchenko, who previously served as the chairman of the Belarusian State Military Industrial Committee, became the prime minister of the new government.


Set up the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, the Supreme Economic Court and the General Procuratorate.

President of the Constitutional Court

Peter Petrovich Mi Krasevich (ПётрПетровичМиклашевич), took office in February 2008.

President of the Supreme Court

W Lianjing Olegvić Sukarlo (ВалентинОлеговичСукало), took office in January 1997.

President of the Supreme Economic Court

Victor Sergeyevich Kamenkov (ВикторСергеевичКаменков), took office in October 2001.

The Attorney General

Alexander Vladimirovich Konyuk (АлександрВладимировичКонюк), took office in September 2011.

Political parties

Belarus has no ruling party. The National Assembly elections are not based on party affiliation but on the principle of constituency, so there is no fixed parliamentary group in the White Parliament. Political parties have limited influence in social and political life.

As of the end of 2013, there were 15 legal political parties, 37 legal trade unions, and 2402 legal social organizations (including 230 international organizations). The larger of the 15 political parties are:

(1)The Communist Party of Belarus: The President was supported by the Communist Party of Belarus on November 2, 1996 The members of the establishment, the existing members of about 6000 people. The party declared it to be the successor of the Communist Party of Belarus during the Soviet Communist Party. The basic program is to restore the socialist system through legal channels, establish a just classless society, and rebuild a unified country on the voluntary basis of the people of the former Soviet Union. The party supports the policies promoted by President Lukashenko and occupies 8 seats in the lower house of parliament. In March 2005, the chemist Tatyana Gennadyevna Golubeva (ТатьянаГеннадьевнаГолубева) was elected as the first secretary of the Party Central Committee and was re-elected in December 2007.

(2)The Belarusian Communist Party: Established on December 7, 1991, it currently has about 4,000 members. Its basic program is to adhere to the socialist and Soviet system and establish a new alliance of the former Soviet Union countries on a voluntary basis. Since 1996, the party formed an anti-Lukashenko presidential alliance with right-wing forces and became the opposition to the current regime. In August 2007, the White Supreme Court announced the suspension of the party’s activities for six months. In January 2008, the White Ministry of Justice appealed to the High Law to recommend that the party be banned, and then the lawsuit was dismissed. The first secretary of the Party Central Committee is Sergei Ivanovich Kalyakin (СергейИвановичКалякин).

(3)The Belarusian People’s Front Party: Established in 1988. In October 1999, the Belarusian Popular Front party split due to internal power struggles. Former chairman Pozniak led some members to establish a new party, the Belarusian People’s Front, the Christian Conservative Party. The Belarusian People’s Front was renamed the Belarusian People’s Front Party, and it currently has more than 1,300 members. The party is one of the main right-wing parties in Belarus and claims to be the "uncompromising opposition" of the current regime. Chairman Leonid Petrovich Bolshevski (ЛеонидПетровичБорщевский) was elected in December 2007.

(4)United Citizen Party: Established on October 1, 1995, it currently has more than 3,000 members. One of the main right-wing parties in White. Chairman Anatoly Vladimirovich Lebediko (АнатолийВладимировичЛебедько).

(5)Liberal Democratic Party, established on February 5, 1994, currently has 37,000 registered party members. It is a constructive opposition. Chairman Sergei Vasilievich Gedukevich (СергейВасильевичГайдукевич).

< td width="505">

Chairman Anatoly Levtovich (АнатолийЛевтович)

List of names of other parties and chairmen

Belarusian Social Democratic Party (People’s Assembly)

Belarusian Social Democratic Congress

Chairman Stanislav Stanislavovich Shushkevich

(СтаниславСтаниславовичШушкевич )

Agricultural Party

Chairman Mi Khail Viktorovich Simansky (МихаилВикторовичШиманский)

Republic Labor Justice Party


Chairman Viktor Alekseyevich Sokolov (ВикторАлексеевичСоколов)

Belarusian Patriotic Party

Chairman Nikolai Dmitrijevic Ulahović (НиколайДмитриевичУлахович)

Belarusian Social Sports Party

Chairman Fula Kimir Alexandrovich Alexandrovich


Green Party of Belarus

Chairman Oleg Semenovich Gromyko (ОлегСемёновичГромыко)

Republican Party

Chairman Vladimir Yakovlevich Bey Lozor (ВладимирЯковлевичБелозор)

The Belarusian People’s Front Christian Conservative Party

Chairman Zenon Stanislavovich Pozniak (ЗенонСтаниславовичПозняк)

People's Unity Social Democratic Party (People's Unity Party)

Chairman Sergey Vladimirovich Yermak (СергейВладимировичЕрмак)

Dignitaries< /h3>

President Alexander Grigorievich Lukashenko. Born on August 30, 1954 in Kopes Village, Orshansky District, Vitebsk Region, Belarus, ethnic Belarusian. He graduated from Mogilev Teachers College and Bai Academy of Agricultural Sciences successively, majoring in history and economics. Served in the border guards of the former Soviet Union from 1975 to 1977 and joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1979. Served as Secretary of the Youth League Committee of Shklov District of Mogilev Region, Secretary of the Party Committee of Collective Farms, and Head of State Farms. In 1990, he was elected as the representative of the Supreme Soviet of the Republic. In 1993, he served as Chairman of the Temporary Anti-Corruption Committee of the Supreme Soviet of White. He became the first President of the Republic of Belarus on July 10, 1994. He was re-elected three times in September 2001, March 2006 and December 2010. As president, he visited China four times in January 1995, April 1997, April 2001 and December 2005. In August 2008, he went to China to attend the opening ceremony of the Beijing Olympic Games, and in October 2010, he attended the Belarusian National Pavilion Day at the Shanghai World Expo. Like ice hockey, skiing and other sports. Married with three sons.

Prime Minister Andrei Vladimirovich Kobyakov. Inaugurated as Prime Minister in December 2014.

Chairman of the Chamber of the Republic of the National Assembly Anatoly Nikolaevich Rubinov. Born in Mogilev, Belarus in 1939. Graduated from the Lenin State University of Belarus in 1961. Beginning in 1961 at the Institute of Physics of the former Soviet Academy of Sciences for more than 40 years. During the period, he served as the deputy director in charge of scientific research at the Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, secretary of the academician of physics, researcher of mathematics and researcher of informatics. In 1991, he was elected a member of the Belarusian Academy of Sciences and a member of the presidium of the Belarusian Academy of Sciences. Chairman of the Belarusian Appraisal Committee from 2002 to 2006, and a member of the committee since 2009. From 2006 to 2008, he served as the first deputy director of the Office of the President of Belarus. In October 2008, he was elected as a member of the Chamber of the Republic of the National Assembly of Belarus. In the same month, he was elected as the vice chairman of the Chamber of the Republic. On May 24, 2010, he was elected as the chairman of the House of the Republic of the 4th National Assembly. On October 19, 2012, he was elected as the chairman of the House of the Republic of the 5th National Assembly.

Chairman of the House of Representatives of the National Assembly Vladimir Pavlovich Andrechenko. Born in Vitebsk Oblast in 1949. In 1977, he graduated from Russia's Velikolukskiy Agricultural Academy, and in 1988, he graduated from the Minsk High Party School. Bai Gongxun agricultural worker. From 1968 to 1970, he served in the Soviet Army. In 1970, he began to work in the Communist Youth League, party affairs and economics in the Rioznetsky District. From 1981 to 1991, he successively served as Director of the District Agriculture Bureau, Chairman of the District Executive Committee, and First Secretary of the Upper Dvina District Committee of the Communist Party of Belarus. From 1991 to 1994, he successively served as the first vice chairman and chairman of the Agriculture and Resident Food Security Committee of the Vitebsk Region Executive Committee. Since November 1994, he has served as chairman of the executive committee of the Vitebsk region. In 1996, 2000, and 2004, he was elected to the upper house of the White Parliament three times. In September 2008, he was elected as a member of the House of Representatives of the National Assembly. In October, he was elected as the Chairman of the House of Representatives of the Fourth National Assembly. On October 18, 2012, he was elected as the Chairman of the House of Representatives of the Fifth National Assembly.



Belarus has a good industrial base. Machinery manufacturing, metallurgical processing, machine tools, electronics and laser technology are relatively developed and advanced; agriculture and animal husbandry are relatively developed, and the output of potatoes, sugar beets, and flax is at the forefront of the CIS countries. Since 1996, the economy has grown steadily. In March 2002, President Lukashenko proposed the "Belarusian Development Model", emphasizing people-oriented, gradual reforms, seeking progress in stability, abandoning total privatization and shock therapy, and establishing a strong state power and a controllable orientation. The social market economy system. In 2003, GDP grew by 6.8% year-on-year, industry grew by 6.8%, and agriculture grew by 6.8%. The economic policy focusing on expanding exports, increasing housing construction and food production has achieved initial results. However, there are still many difficulties in transforming the planned economic system and establishing a market economy, such as shortage of funds, weak product competitiveness, low corporate efficiency, and serious losses.

On December 19, 2017, the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank has approved to join the AIIB through Belarus.


In 2009, the industrial output value was 123.23 trillion white rubles (43.421 billion U.S. dollars), a negative growth of 2.8% year-on-year. The main industrial sectors include machinery manufacturing, metal processing, chemicals, electronics, optical instruments, petroleum processing, wood processing, light industry, and food processing. There are 1.06 million industrial employees.

< td width="132">


Industrial product output





< /th>

Power generation (100 million kWh)

31.8 p>



Primary petroleum processing (10,000 tons)



Truck (ten thousand)


< p>2.63


large Bus (vehicle)





Car tires (ten thousand)




Tractor (ten thousand)




Metal cutting machine tool (set)



2500 p>

Cement (10,000 tons)

382.0< /p>



Fertilizer (ten thousand tons)




Paper (ten thousand tons)





Characteristics of agricultural development

1. Agricultural productivity is at the leading level in the former Soviet Union

Before independence, Belarus took the lead in the Soviet Union.1.12% of the agricultural land produces 5.9% of the agricultural products of the whole Soviet Union, ranking 5th in the whole Soviet Union. The agricultural labor population accounts for 24.5% of the total labor population in the country, and the agricultural output value accounts for 22.9% of the GDP. Agricultural labor productivity is 28% higher than the average level of the Soviet Union, 8% higher than both Russia and Ukraine, and ranks fourth after the three Baltic countries.

2. Agricultural output value occupies the 4th place in the CIS

Belarus is the main producer of grain, meat, milk, potatoes, flax and other agricultural products in the former Soviet Union. Flax and potatoes are the country’s most famous all over the Soviet Union. Two traditional crops. Before independence, major agricultural products were more than self-sufficient and could be provided to other countries. The output of flax and potatoes in Belarus accounted for 26.6% and 13% of the total output of the Soviet Union respectively, ranking first and second; the output of milk and meat accounted for 7% and 6% of the total Soviet Union, ranking third and fourth; The grain output accounts for 3.4% of the whole Soviet Union, ranking sixth.

3. The output value of animal husbandry exceeds that of planting

The characteristic of the agricultural production structure in Belarus is animal husbandry, followed by planting, and breeding. In 1996, the agricultural output value was 7.24 billion Belarusian rubles, accounting for 40.3% of the GDP, of which animal husbandry accounted for 51% of agricultural output value, and plantation accounted for 49%.

Agricultural production structure and foreign trade

1. Planting industry

In 2012, the output value of planting industry was 30.47 trillion white rubles, or about 3.655 billion U.S. dollars (calculated at the annual average exchange rate of 1 U.S. dollar: 8335.86 white rubles), accounting for 51.7% of the total agricultural output value. The planting industry mainly produces grains, flax, potatoes, sugar beets, vegetables and so on. The main cereal crops are wheat, rye, barley, oats and corn. The main cash crops are flax, sugar beet and rapeseed. Among them, flax and potato are two traditional crops that are well-known in Belarus.

2. Animal husbandry

Animal husbandry is the main agricultural industry, but its output value is lower than that of planting. The agricultural production structure of Belarus is characterized by a high proportion of animal husbandry, which is also a key development area for Belarus. However, according to the official data released by Belarus for the period of 2005-2011, the output value of planting industry has always been higher than that of animal husbandry. For example, in 2011, the agricultural output value was 55.64 trillion white rubles, accounting for 18.7% of GDP, of which animal husbandry accounted for 47.4% of agricultural output value, and plantation accounted for 52.6%. A considerable part of the grains and sesame seeds in the planting industry are used as feed for animal husbandry to support the production of white meat, eggs, milk and other products.

3. Fishery and special breeding

Mainly include freshwater fish breeding, animal breeding (brown fox, mink and water rat), beekeeping, etc. The output of freshwater fish products is 5,100 tons.

4. Agricultural foreign trade

After independence, Belarus' agricultural foreign trade import and export commodities are mainly inputs such as potash fertilizer, tractors, agricultural trucks and traditional superior products such as flax, meat and dairy products. For example, in 1993, it exported 285,800 tons and 2,251,900 tons of potash to CIS countries and other countries, 73,100 tractors and 7,700 tractors, and 241,200 trucks and 14,330 trucks. The imported agricultural products are mainly cotton, sugar, vegetable oil and other products. For example, in 1993, 32,200 tons of cotton, 16,100 tons of sugar, and 13,500 tons of vegetable oil were imported from CIS countries.


As of the end of 2009, white foreign debt totaled 7.89 billion U.S. dollars, accounting for 16.5% of GDP; total domestic debt was 7.8 trillion white rubles, accounting for approximately GDP Of 5.8%.

As the central bank, the National Bank of Belarus is responsible for formulating relevant credit policies and assisting the government in credit adjustments on macroeconomic performance. There are 31 state-owned and commercial banks in Belarus, of which 8 are wholly foreign-owned banks and 25 have foreign shares. Among them, there are 20 banks with more than 50% foreign capital. The proportion of foreign capital in Belarusian banks is 17.11%. The total capital of the White Commercial Bank is 8.697 trillion white rubles. The larger banks in Belarus are the Bank of Belarus, the Belarusian Agricultural and Industrial Bank, the Belarusian Industrial and Construction Bank, the Belarusian Foreign Economic Bank and the Belarusian Investment Bank.

Foreign trade

Export commodity structure: mineral products (37.9% of total exports), machinery and equipment and transportation (15.7%), chemical products and rubber (18.2%) , Ferrous metals and products (6.9%), food and agricultural and sideline products (10.8%), others (10.5%).

The structure of imports: mineral products (40.3% of total imports), machinery and equipment and transportation (22.6%), ferrous metals and products (8.8%), chemical products and rubber (12.4%) Food and agricultural products (8.2%), others (7.7%).

Foreign capital

In 2003, the foreign capital introduced in 2003 was US$1.3 billion, an increase of more than 80% over the previous year. As of January 1, 2004, including investments in the Commonwealth of Independent States, Belarus’ accumulated foreign investment stock reached 1.4 billion U.S. dollars, an increase of 33.8% over January 1, 2003, of which direct investment was 737.3 million U.S. dollars, accounting for all accumulated foreign investment. 50.9% of stock. In 2009, Belarus attracted USD 9.303 billion in foreign investment, an increase of 1.4 times over the same period last year.



Belarusian and Russian are both the official languages ​​of Belarus. English is the main foreign language, but Belarusian government officials and ordinary people speak English and the proportion is not high.


Mainly believe in the Eastern Orthodox Church (over 70%), and some areas in the northwest believe in Catholicism and the combined sect of Greek Orthodox and Catholicism.


Independence Day (Republic Day): July 3 (July 3, 1944 commemorates the Soviet army’s liberation of the Belarusian capital Minsk occupied by German fascists.);< /p>

New Year of the Gregorian Calendar: January 1;

Greek Orthodox Christmas: January 7;

The Victory Day of the Great Patriotic War: May 9, 1945 ;

October Revolution Day: November 7, 1917.


The Belarusian Belarus Song and Dance Ensemble is the representative of Belarusian dance art. Bailu Song and Dance Ensemble was established in 1987 in Grodno, Belarus. The founder of the Song and Dance Ensemble-a meritorious cultural worker of the Republic of Belarus, E.A. Shtopo, invited ballet dancers, musicians and singers from Belarus, Russia, Ukraine, Estonia and other countries to form the original Bailu Song and Dance Ensemble.

The song and dance troupe has participated in the cultural programs of the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, and the Belarusian Cultural Festivals in Moscow, Belgrade, Krasnodar, Switzerland, Germany, France and China.

Although Bailu Song and Dance Troupe is not a national song and dance troupe, it cherishes the national tradition very much. They believe that national tradition is a source of vitality, nourishing the creative community and encouraging them to find new directions. They use their unique dance style to describe and interpret the dances of their parents, bringing a new modern flavor to the national dance.

The traditional clothing of Belarus was initially influenced by the style of the Kievan Rus period, and then mainly by Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Russia and other European countries.


Military system

On September 23, 1991, the Supreme Soviet of Belarus passed a decision to establish its own defense system and army based on the "principle of adequate". On January 11, 1992, White announced to take over all conventional forces of the former Soviet Army in his territory. On March 20, the Supreme Soviet of Belarus passed the "Armed Forces Act", deciding to form its own army on the basis of the former Soviet army that it took over from now on. In 1994, the Belarusian Supreme Soviet decided to inherit the tradition of the original Soviet army, and set February 23 (former Soviet Army Building Day) as the day of the Defenders and Armed Forces of the Belarusian Fatherland (the Army Building Day) every year.


On December 6, 1992, Bai passed the first "Military Doctrine" after independence. In October 2001, White revised the "Military Doctrine" and passed the second "Military Doctrine" on this basis.

According to the new "Military Doctrine", Bai still pursues a defensive military strategy and does not regard any country in the world as a potential enemy. The main goal of Belarusian military security is to prevent military threats against Belarus, control them in a local area and eventually eliminate them. The "New Military Doctrine" stipulates that Bai will not participate in military conflicts between other countries, and will only use military power when it is invaded or armed invaded by itself and all means of deterring the aggression have been invalidated. The task of ensuring national military security will be jointly completed by other armies and military units that are included in the national military organization by the armed forces.

While stressing the maintenance of the country’s military security through political and military means, Belarus has decided to establish a regional collective security system within the framework of the Russian-Belarusian alliance with the aim of accomplishing common defense tasks. At the same time, it is committed to achieving non-nuclear status, advocating stable reduction of conventional arms and conducting bilateral and multilateral disarmament dialogues, and cooperating with other countries on the basis of multilateral or bilateral international treaties and agreements.

The basic direction of White’s military policy is formulated under the leadership of the President, approved by the Lower House of the National Assembly, and implemented by the Security Council and the Council of Ministers. According to the White Constitution, the President is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces and leads the security conference. The Security Conference unifies and coordinates and leads powerful departments such as the Ministry of National Defense, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the National Security Council, and the National Border Defense Commission. The chairman of the security conference is the president. The current Secretary of State of the Security Council is Lieutenant General Gennady Nikolayevich Nevigras, the Minister of Defense is General Leonid Semenovich Maltsev, and the Chief of the General Staff is Scheer Lieutenant General Guy Petrovich Gurulev.

Military strength

The Belarusian armed forces began a large-scale streamlining and reorganization at the end of 2001. It consists of the army and air defense forces. In 2009, it had a strength of 50,600. The Army and Air Defense Forces have established service headquarters, directly under the leadership of the Ministry of National Defense and the General Staff Headquarters; the Army has two campaign headquarters; the Border Defense Forces and the Interior Forces are under the jurisdiction of the State Frontier Defense Administration and the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Belarus implements a military service system that combines universal compulsory military service and contract military service. The service period of compulsory soldiers without higher education is 18 months, and the service period of compulsory soldiers with higher education is 12 months.


The total number of the Belarusian army is 43,500. Compiled as a unit directly under the Ministry of National Defense and 3 armies. The troops directly under the Ministry of National Defense have one motorized infantry division, three independent mobile brigades, one artillery division, two combat tactical missile brigades, one anti-tank brigade, and one special forces brigade. 3 armies: 1 army governs 3 independent mechanized brigades, 1 ground-to-air missile brigade, 1 artillery regiment, 1 rocket artillery regiment, 1 tank regiment; 1 army governs 1 surface-to-air missile brigade, 1 One artillery regiment, one anti-tank regiment, and one rocket artillery regiment.

Main battle tanks: 1,724 (another 238 are stored), including 60 T-55, 1569 T-72, and 95 T-80.

Infantry fighting vehicles: 1560 (53 in addition), including 81 BMⅡ-1, 1164 BMⅡ-2, 161 BPM, 81 BM-1, and BMⅡ-2 There are 1,164 vehicles of the BPM type, 161 vehicles of the BPM type, and 154 vehicles of the BMⅡ-1 type.

Armored transport vehicles: 918 (also 306 are stored), including 188 BTP-60, 445 BTP-70, 193 BTP-80, 22 BTP-male, MT- 70 JIB models.

1465 guns of various types (153 guns are also stored), including 428 towed guns (122 mm 178 guns, 152 mm 250 guns), and 572 self-propelled guns (122 mm 235 guns, 152 mm as 301 guns) 203 mm 36), 54 curved linear dual-purpose guns, 334 rocket launchers (209 122 mm, 1 130 mm, 84 220 mm, 40 300 mm), 77 mortars.

480 AT-5, AT-6, AT-7 anti-tank missile launchers, 96 campaign tactical missile launchers (60 Scud, Frog/SS-21 36 Department). Surface-to-air missiles. There are 350 sets of SA-8/-11/--12/-13/.

Air Force

22,500 people (including 10,200 air defense forces), 230 combat aircraft and 60 combat helicopters.

Fighter bombers: 116, including 36 Su-24 and 80 Su-25.

Fighters: 108 fighters, including 35 MiG-23s, 50 MiG-29s, and 23 Su-27s.

Reconnaissance aircraft: 6 aircraft.

60 combat helicopters, of which 55 are Mi-24, 4 Mi-24R, and 1 Mi-24K.

Transport helicopters: 186.

Transport aircraft: 27.

There are several AA-7, AA-8, AA-10, AA-11 air-to-air missiles.

There are several air-to-surface missiles AS-10, AS-7, and AS-14.

There are about 10,000 air defense forces and 175 SA-3/-5/l10 surface-to-air missile launchers.

Military expenditure

The national defense final account in 2009 was 1,5867 billion white rubles, or about 560 million U.S. dollars, an increase of 10% over 2008 and accounting for 1.16% of the GDP that year. Belarus, Russia, and Kazakhstan established a unified air defense system at the beginning of the 21st century. Together with a customs union, Belarus will continue to accelerate the integration process with Kazakhstan and Russia, and will eventually establish an "Eurasian Union" centered on these three countries.


Rail and road transportation networks are relatively developed and are part of the European transportation corridor.


Long-distance transportation is mainly railway. As of 2014, the total length of national railways is 5,600 kilometers, of which 894 kilometers are electrified railways, and the railway freight volume is 38.402 billion ton-kilometers. The main trunk lines of modern Belarus are responsible for approximately 75% of the national freight volume and over 50% of the passenger volume. The Brest-Minsk-Orsha-Russia border dual-track electrified railway has a total length of 612 kilometers, with freight trains running at a speed of 90 km/h and passenger cars at a speed of 160 km/h.

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2008-2013 Belarusian Railway Freight and Passenger Traffic


Railway freight volume (100 million ton kilometers)


Railway passenger traffic (100 million person-kilometers)

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Belarusian Railway Responsible for intermodal work with railway transportation agencies of countries in the Asia-Pacific region, including China. There is a regular container train "Mongolia Victor" between Brest-Ulaanbaatar and Hohhot in China.

Belarus plans to open a fast container train, which will depart from Urumqi in Xinjiang, China, from the Dostyk border crossing station, and transit through Kazakhstan and Russia.


As of 2014, the total length of the road network in Belarus is 83,600 kilometers, of which 15,400 kilometers are national roads and 68,200 kilometers are local roads. There are 5,300 bridges across the country, and the total length of the viaduct is 173 kilometers. The density of the public road network is 400 kilometers per thousand square kilometers.

2936 kilometers of oil transportation pipelines, 6,301 kilometers of natural gas transportation pipelines, and 1265 kilometers of petroleum products transportation pipelines.

In 2008, the freight volume was 73.412 billion ton-kilometers, of which railway freight volume was 48.994 billion ton-kilometers, road freight volume was 24.231 billion ton-kilometers, inland waterway volume was 132 million ton-kilometers, and air freight volume was 55 million ton-kilometers.

The total passenger traffic in 2009 was 21.504 billion person-kilometers, of which railway passenger traffic was 8.188 billion person-kilometers, road passenger traffic was 8.104 billion person-kilometers, inland river traffic was about 3 million person-kilometers, and air passenger traffic was 1.28 billion person-kilometers. .

International transportation: International transportation is mainly based on sea and road multimodal transport or railway transportation. Multimodal transport is first shipped to Klaipeda or other surrounding ports in Lithuania, and then transported to Minsk by trailer. inland city. (EUROTRANS-Belarus)

There are 5 Е-class international highways in Belarus with a total length of 1841 kilometers. European Transport Corridor No. 2 (Berlin-Warsaw-Minsk-Moscow-Nizhny Novgorod), European Transport Corridor No. 9 (Helsinki-St. Petersburg-Moscow/Pskov-Kiev-Kishnau-Bucharest-Qi Mitlovgrad-Alexandroupolis) and its 1513-kilometer B9 branch line (Kaliningrad/Klaipeda-Kaunas-Vilnius-Minsk-Kiev) ).

Air transport

Belarus has 7 international airports: Minsk National Airport, Minsk No. 1 Airport, Gomel Airport, Grodno Airport, Brest Airport, Mogilev Airport and Vitebsk Airport. These airports are not only responsible for the transportation of domestic routes, but also international scheduled flights to various countries and charter passenger flights.

Minsk International Airport can guarantee flights in the first and second categories specified by the International Civil Aviation Organization, and can take off and land any type of aircraft. Gomel Airport, Grodno Airport, Mogilev Airport and Vitebsk Airport can take off and land on Il-76, Tu-154, В-737, В-757 aircraft and aircraft below this level. Brest Airport can take off and land on АН-124 (Rusland type), Il-76, Tu-154, An-310-300, В-767-200 aircraft and aircraft below this level.

Belarusian air transport mainly has three airlines: Belarusian Airlines, Gomel Airport and air transport export airlines. Among them, the first two companies are mainly engaged in passenger air transportation, and air transportation export airlines have a dominant position in the cargo air transportation market.

Water transportation

The inland river transportation volume is about 2 million kilometers. It guarantees the domestic waterway passenger and cargo transportation of about 2,000 kilometers. It transports passengers and cargo through 10 river ports. Transported to various settlements and cargo processing points along the river. The 10 river ports are located in the Pripyat, Dnieper, Sozh, Berezina, Neman, and West Dvina rivers. The waterways in European water systems, the Bug River-Dnieper Bug Canal-Pripyat River-Dnieper River-Black Sea estuary water system flows through Belarus, and Belarus exports potash fertilizer along this main waterway. The river ports of Gomel, Bobruysk and Mozyri have dedicated railway lines and are suitable for sorting goods that require intermodal transportation. The port is equipped with efficient gantry crane ships and mechanized freight lines for fast formation of ships.



The current education law is the "Education Law of the Republic of Belarus" promulgated on January 13, 2011. Ordinary schools implement 11-year free compulsory education, and colleges and universities have a school system of 4-5 years, which is divided into two forms: public expense and self-funded. There are about 10,000 educational institutions in Belarus, with more than 2 million students of various types, and education funding is not less than 5% of GDP. There are 3,798 pre-school education institutions (about 437,000 children at school), 3,020 general secondary education institutions (about 1.032 million students at school), 224 secondary professional schools (113,000 students at school), and 176 higher vocational schools Colleges and universities (63,000 students), 51 higher education institutions (261,000 students).

Famous universities include: Belarusian State University, founded in 1921, QS top 600 in the world; Belarusian State University of Culture and Art, founded in 1975; Russian State Technical University, founded in 1920; Belarusian National Normal University University, established in 1922; Belarusian National Technical University, established in 1930; Belarusian National University of Economics, established in 1933; Belarusian National Agricultural University, established in 1940; Minsk State Linguistic University, established in 1948.

Medical treatment

Belarus’s medical and health level ranks among the forefront of the CIS countries. The Belarusian Constitution provides for a free medical care system. Medical and health services mainly rely on state financial support.

As of 2014, Belarus has 13 medical and pharmaceutical research institutes, 4 central scientific research laboratories, 4 medical schools, and 4 medical training colleges. Affected by the Cherno nuclear accident in Ukraine in 1986, certain areas of Belarus are still suffering from nuclear radiation damage, of which the southeast is the most serious.


As of the end of 2009, there were 1,257 newspapers and periodicals. Main newspapers: "Soviet Belarusian Newspaper", founded in 1927, is the newspaper of the President's Office. It is published in Russian and Belarus. It has a circulation of about 40,000 copies and is the most influential newspaper in Belarus. "Republika", Belarusian government agency newspaper, daily newspaper. Founded in 1991, it was published in a mixture of Russian and Belarusian languages, with a circulation of about 94,000 copies; "People's Daily", founded in 1990, was originally a parliamentary agency newspaper, but now it has been changed to a government agency newspaper, and published in both Russian and Belarusian languages. , A circulation of about 28,000 copies; "The Star", a parliamentary agency newspaper, has 80 staff. Published 5 days a week, only in Belarusian; "For the Honor of the Motherland", the Ministry of National Defense newspaper, published in a mixture of Russian and Belarusian languages, circulation of about 17,000 copies; "Youth Banner", National Youth Affairs Commission The newspaper of the Belarusian Youth Patriotic Union, published in a mixture of Russian and Belarus, has a circulation of about 19,000 copies; "Belarusian Field", a government-owned agricultural newspaper, is published in a mixture of Russian and Belarusian languages, with a circulation of about 35,000; "Newsball" newspaper, founded in 1991, is a private newspaper with 41 staff. Published 3 times a week.

Main news agency: Belarusian State News Agency (Belarus News Agency), formerly the Belarusian branch of the Russian Telegraph Agency established in January 1921, officially renamed Belarusian News Agency in March 1931, and is now under the President’s Office. A total of 176 staff, including 55 reporters, provide news in Bai, Russian and English to 220 news organizations in Belarus and other CIS countries. The current president Dmitry Zucker. Interfax News Agency, affiliated to the Russian International Media Group "Interfax News Agency", was established in 1994. President Vyacheslav Zinkovich Nikolayevich. The independent news agency "Belapan" was established in 1993 and has about 70 staff, including 35 journalists.

Belarusian National Radio and Television Corporation: directly under the jurisdiction of the president, the chairman and vice-chairmen of the company are appointed and removed by the president. The company governs the news department, television stations, radio stations, radio technology centers, and commercial advertising departments. It has branches in each state and its radio and television services cover the whole country. There are about 3000 professionals in total.

Belarusian Radio was founded in November 1925 and currently has 400 professionals. Four programs are broadcast in mono and stereo on two radio bands: the first program is broadcast 19 hours a day. The second program is broadcast for 16 hours a day. Radio "Capital" broadcasts for 12 hours a day. The above three programs are broadcast in both Russian and Belarusian languages, and can be listened to in Ukraine, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia and Belarus neighboring regions, and regions west of the Russian Urals. "Belarus" International Radio broadcasts 4 hours a day in Bai, Russian, German and English to the United States, Canada, Australia and more than 20 European and African countries.

The National Television of Belarus was founded in 1956 and currently has 700 professionals of various types. There are five creative departments under the TV program management office and social programs, children's programs, science and education programs, TV films and sports programs, and three editorial departments for youth programs, cultural programs, and music and entertainment programs. It is broadcast in a mixture of Bai and Russian, and the daily broadcast time is about 20 hours.


On May 19, 2017, the International Ice Hockey Federation voted 55 in favor and 52 against it. It passed the co-hosting of Riga, the capital of Latvia, and Minsk, the capital of Belarus. The 2021 World Ice Hockey Championship decision. The two cities won the right to host the event after defeating the cities of Tampere and Helsinki in Finland. The tournament is expected to be held from May 7 to 23, 2021.

People's lives

In 2004, the lives of the Belarusian people continued to improve. Social security expenditures accounted for 9% of GDP. The wage level has continued to rise, and the per capita wage is nearly 200 US dollars. The per capita consumption of meat is 57 kilograms, dairy products 257 kilograms, 219 eggs, 172 kilograms of potatoes, 107 kilograms of vegetables and melons, 35.8 kilograms of sugar, 105 kilograms of bread and other noodles. There are 4,408 regular schools, 204 specialized secondary schools, and 59 colleges and universities nationwide. Both urban and rural residents enjoy free medical care, retirement protection and other rights.


Foreign Policy

Since President Lukashenko came to power, Belarus has adhered to an independent and pragmatic foreign policy. The primary focus of its diplomacy is Russia, which attaches great importance to relations with the Commonwealth of Independent States and neighboring countries, regards China as one of Belarus's diplomatic priorities, and strives to improve relations with Western countries. In 2003, Belarus continued to strengthen its strategic alliance with Russia, and worked hard to solve the problems in the construction of the Russian-Belarusian alliance; continued to attach importance to and participate in the activities of the collective security treaty organization within the Commonwealth of Independent States and the work of preparing for the establishment of a unified economic space for the four countries; continue to attach importance to the relationship with China Relations; take measures to improve relations with Western countries.

Belarus joined the United Nations on October 24, 1945 and became one of its member states.

Foreign Relations

Relationships with China

Established diplomatic relations on January 20, 1992. After the establishment of diplomatic relations, relations between the two countries have developed smoothly, with frequent high-level exchanges of visits. As of 2014, there are 12 pairs of cities, provinces and prefectures established between the two countries.

According to the statistics of the General Administration of Customs of China, in 2000, the total trade volume between China and Belarus was US$113.63 million, an increase of 336.7% over the previous year, of which China’s exports were US$41.12 million and imports were US$72.51 million. .

In 2012, the bilateral trade volume between China and Belarus reached US$1.58 billion, a year-on-year increase of 21.4%, of which China’s exports were US$920 million, a year-on-year increase of 30.4%, and imports were US$660 million, a year-on-year increase of 10.8%.

Since the establishment of diplomatic relations, the two countries have carried out cultural exchanges and cooperation. In 1996, the Sino-Belarusian Intergovernmental Science and Technology Cooperation Committee was established and has now held 10 regular meetings. Belarus has held "Belarusian Science and Technology Days" in China many times. Since 1999, the two countries have mutually held cultural days. As of 2012, China has held 6 "Chinese Culture Days" in Belarus and Belarus has held 7 "Belarusian Culture Days" in China. In October 2009, the Belarusian-language website of China Radio International "International Online" was officially opened. In October 2010, the Belarusian Ministry of Culture sent a number of art groups to China to attend the Shanghai World Expo and "White Culture Day" activities. January 2007, BelarusThe Confucius Institute at Ross State University was officially listed. In September 2011, the Confucius Institute at Minsk State Linguistic University was officially inaugurated. In 2012, the two countries warmly celebrated the 20th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations and carried out a variety of activities. Both parties held a celebration reception and issued a commemorative postal cover. The exchange of students between the two countries has further expanded.

Relations with Russia

The two countries established diplomatic relations on June 25, 1992. The Russia-Belarus Union Treaty was signed in 1997, and the "Treaty on the Establishment of the Russian-Belarus Union Countries" was signed in 1999. The treaty entered into force in 2000. Belarus supports Russia in advancing the integration process of the Commonwealth of Independent States, establishing a three-country customs union with Russia and Kazakhstan to jointly promote the construction of the unified economic space, the Eurasian Economic Community, and the collective security treaty organization integration mechanism, and actively responds to Russia’s proposal to establish "Eurasia The vision of "Alliance". Russia opposes interference in Belarus' internal affairs and expanded sanctions by the United States and the West. In January 2012, White President Lukashenko held a meeting with the then Russian President Medvedev in Sochi. In February, the Russian and Belarusian presidents issued a joint statement condemning the US-European sanctions against Belarus. In May, after Putin was re-elected as President of Russia, his first visit to Belarus was arranged, and the two heads of state signed a joint statement. In June, Chairman of the Russian Federation Council Matviyenko and Chairman of the State Duma Naryshkin visited Belarus respectively. In July, Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev and White Prime Minister Miasnikovich held a meeting of ministers of the Union countries in Minsk. In September, Belarusian President Lukashenko went to Sochi for a holiday at the invitation of Russian President Putin and held a bilateral meeting. In September, White Foreign Minister Mark Yi visited Russia and held talks with Russian Foreign Minister Lavrov. In October, Russian Deputy Prime Minister Rogozin visited Belarus to attend the meeting of the Russian-Belarusian military-industrial enterprise cooperation working group and met with Belarusian President Lukashenko.

Relations with CIS countries

Relations with CIS countries are one of Belarus’ diplomatic priorities. In 2012, Belarus continued to develop friendly relations with CIS countries and actively participated in multilateral activities within the framework of the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Eurasian Economic Community, and the Customs Union. In January, White Prime Minister Miasnikovic visited Turkmenistan. In March, White President Lukashenko went to Russia to attend the summit of the Eurasian Economic Community. In April, Turkmenistan President Berdymuhamedov visited Belarus. In May, President Nazarbayev of Kazakhstan visited Belarus. In May, Lukashenko attended the Collective Security Treaty Organization summit and the informal summit of leaders of the Commonwealth of Independent States held in Moscow. In May, the Belarusian (Kran) Economic and Trade Cooperation Mixed Committee held its 21st meeting in Minsk. In May, White Prime Minister Miasnikovic paid a working visit to Turkmenistan and attended the meeting of the Council of Heads of Government of the Commonwealth of Independent States. In June, White Prime Minister Miasnikovic attended the meeting of the Prime Ministers of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan in St. Petersburg. In August, the meeting of the Belarusian (Zerbaijan) Intergovernmental Mixed Committee on Economic and Trade was held in Minsk. In August, President Aliyev paid an official visit to Belarus. In September, White Prime Minister Miasnikovic attended the CIS summit in Yalta.

Relationships with Western Countries

Baimei established diplomatic relations on December 28, 1991. After the referendum in November 1996, Western countries headed by the United States refused to recognize the legal status of the Belarusian National Assembly on the grounds of violating "democracy" and "human rights", nor did they recognize the results of Lukashenko's re-election in 2001. And continue to exert economic pressure on Belarus and support the Belarusian opposition. In 2002, the relationship between Belarus and the United States continued to froze. The United States continued to criticize Belarus for its undemocratic political system and proposed a draft resolution on Belarus' human rights situation at the United Nations Conference on Human Rights in Geneva in March 2003. The United States also accused Belarus of expelling the OSCE representative in Belarus and selling weapons to "evil" countries. Bai withstood US pressure, opposed the US interfering in Belarus' internal affairs through the use of human rights issues, criticized the US military presence in the Commonwealth of Independent States, Bush's "axis of evil" theory, and unilateralism. In November 2002, because the Czech Republic refused to issue entry visas to the Belarus delegation participating in the Prague summit of the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Committee, and the 14 EU countries subsequently banned Belarusian political figures from entering the country, relations between Belarus and NATO and the European Union were tense. However, by the end of 2002, Belarus' efforts to improve relations with Western Europe gradually yielded results, and relations between the two sides eased somewhat. Belarus and the OSCE reached an agreement on the establishment of an office in Belarus, and the OSCE restored Belarus' long-vacant legal seat.

In October 2004, White held a referendum on whether President Lukashenko could participate in the next presidential election and abolished the constitutional provisions restricting the president’s term. Both the United States and the CSCE accused White of the referendum and Parliamentary elections violate democratic principles and international standards. The US House of Representatives passed the "Belarusian Democracy Bill 2004." Lukashenko delivered a long speech criticizing the US for passing the bill as a gross interference in the internal affairs of Belarus. The Coordinating Committee of Leaders of Political Parties and Social Organizations of the Republic of Belarus issued a confession letter to citizens and the international community, stating that the "Belarusian Democracy Bill 2004" promulgated by the US government is a destruction of the stability of Belarus, and Belarus deeply regrets it. The people of Belarus support the policy of consolidating and revitalizing the country pursued by President Lukashenko. The Belarusian Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated in a statement that the OSCE Democracy and Human Rights Observer Mission’s evaluation of the Belarusian referendum was obviously unobjective and biased.

In 2009, Belarus-American relations were loosened, and Belarus-Europe relations improved. In March, Rosper, the head of news and media of the US President Barack Obama's campaign team, visited Belarus and communicated with the Belarusians online. In May, the United States decided to extend the suspension of sanctions against the white "Polotsk Fiberglass Company" and a paint and pigment manufacturer. In June, Culkin, Chairman of the Helsinki Committee of the U.S. Congress, visited Belarus.

In February 2009, Solana, the European Union’s High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy, visited Belarus. In March, Sores, Chairman of the OSCE Parliament, visited Belarus. In April, the Foreign Minister Schwarzenberg of Czech Republic, the rotating EU presidency, visited Belarus. In the same month, White President Lukashenko visited Italy and the Vatican, and met with Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi and Pope Benedict XVI. In May, First Deputy Prime Minister Semashko and Foreign Minister Martynov jointly attended the Prague summit of the EU’s “Eastern Partnership Program” and signed a joint statement to participate in the program as equals with Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia. In June, EU Commissioner for External Relations Waldner visited Belarus. In September, White President Lukashenko visited Lithuania. In November, Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi visited Belarus. In addition, White Foreign Minister Martinov visited the EU headquarters three times, and also visited Germany and Italy. In view of the fact that Belarus was greatly affected by the financial crisis, the European Union provided aid to Belarus and actively supported the IMF in granting US$3.5 billion in loans to Belarus. The EU continues to suspend entry restrictions for senior Belarusian officials and establishes a European Commission Information Center in Minsk. Belarus officially granted the European Commission's representative office in Belarus the status of a diplomatic institution.

Relations with other countries

White attaches importance to relations with Lithuania, Poland and other neighboring countries. In 2003, Belarus' trade with Lithuania increased significantly, with a year-on-year increase of 14% in trade volume to 420 million U.S. dollars; a significant increase in trade with Poland, an increase of 59% year-on-year to 783 million U.S. dollars; but Belarus’ trade volume with Estonia and Latvia both increased. There have been different degrees of reduction, with trade volume of US$68 million and US$389 million respectively.

In 2009, Belarus continued to develop relations with the Baltic States and Poland. In January, Latvian Prime Minister Godmanis visited Belarus. In June, the secretaries of the Security Council of Belarus, Ukraine, and Poland reached the "Kiev Initiative" in Kiev. In September, White Prime Minister Sidorski paid a working visit to Poland. In October, Estonian Foreign Minister Payt visited Belarus and attended the opening ceremony of the Embassy of Estonia in Belarus. In November, Latvian Foreign Minister Riekszins visited Belarus. In December, Belarus and Lithuania held an inter-ministerial consultation.

Specialty products

The staple food of the Belarusians is mainly bread, and the non-staple food includes meat such as pigs, cattle, sheep, fish, shrimps, poultry, cabbage, cucumbers, tomatoes, carrots, potatoes Waiting for vegetables. In particular, potatoes are both staple food and non-staple food. They can use potatoes to make hundreds of dishes, and there are shops that specialize in potato food. They have a heavier taste and their cooking is crispy and well-ripe.

Traditional foods include black bread, rye paste, flour, and potato pancakes. They like meat, yogurt, cheese, and cheese. They especially like soup. They often drink mixed sweet soup, cabbage soup, borscht topped with sour cream, etc.


Belarus is a landlocked country located in the plains of Eastern Europe and the capital is Minsk. Belarus is a country with beautiful natural scenery, clean air and enthusiastic guests. The territory is famous for lakes, rivers and dense forests. It is cool in summer, golden leaves in autumn, and snowy in winter.

The places of interest in Belarus include: Victory Square, which is located in the center of Minsk. It was built in 1947. It is 225 meters long and 175 meters wide. On the square stands the monument to the fallen martyrs of the Great Patriotic War. 40 meters, the bottom of the stele is inlaid with large metal reliefs on all sides, showing the heroic battle history of the Belarusian soldiers and civilians; the National Museum of the History of the Great Patriotic War, located on the left side of the Republic Palace in Minsk, is the largest and most collected guard in Belarus. National War Memorial.

Belovez Jungle National Park (covering an area of ​​87,000 hectares) is one of the oldest national reserves, built in 1990. Belovezh Jungle National Park is located in Grodno and Brest regions in southwestern Belarus, 340 kilometers away from Minsk. There are 59 species of mammals (including 6 species of national protected animals) and 253 species of birds in the national reserve, including 75 species listed in the "Red Book". About 300 European bisons are the most precious animals in the national reserve. The Belovez jungle is unique and is the largest ancient forest on the Central European Plain. The average age of the forest here is more than 100 years, and in some areas the age is more than 250 to 350 years. There are more than 1,000 kinds of towering trees in the Belovez Jungle: 400-600 years old oak trees, 250-350 years old ash and pine trees, 200 to 250 years old cedar trees. In terms of the diversity of flora and fauna, the Beloverz Jungle is unique in Europe. In 1992, the Belovez jungle was listed in the UNESCO's "World Cultural Heritage List". In 1993, the National Reserve was renamed the Biosphere Reserve. In 1997, the Beloverz Jungle was awarded a certificate of merit by the European Commission.

Braslav Lake District National Park was established in 1995 and is located in the district of Braslav, bordering Lithuania and Latvia. The total area of ​​the park is 69,100 hectares. About 200 ponds are "treasures" in the park. The total area of ​​lakes in Braslav is 114 square kilometers.

Pripyat National Park was established in 1996 and is located in Gomel State. The park covers an area of ​​188,485 hectares. The park is famous for its rare flora and fauna.

Naroch National Park was established in 1999. Lake Naroch in the park is called the "Pearl of the Country". Lake Naroch is the largest lake in Belarus. The beautiful lakes and recreational facilities always attract many tourists. There is also the country’s largest Naroch Nursing Home and a holiday camp in the park. Visitors can enjoy a comfortable vacation here 240 days a year, and there are about 100 days a year to swim here. In addition, Lake Naroch is also famous for its mineral water.

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