Attachment is also known as a large air ring, is a mixed gas around the earth, is the outermost gas circle layer of the earth, surrounding the ocean and land, atmosphere There is no exact upper industry in the circle, and there is still a thin gas and basic particles from 2000 to 16,000 kilometers away from the ground, and there will be a small amount of gas in the underground, soil and some rocks, which can also be considered an integral part of the ancestral ring. The main components of the earth atmosphere are nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide and less than 0.04% ratio of micro gas, which are referred to as air,


ingredients It mainly has nitrogen, accounting for 78.1%; oxygen accounted for 20.9%; argon accounted for 0.93%; there are small amounts of carbon dioxide, rare gas (helium, helium, argon, helium, helium, helium) and water vapor. The air density of the atmosphere decreases with the height, the more the air is thin. The thickness of the atmosphere is approximately 1,000 kilometers, but there is no significant limit.

Table 1-1-1 Gas ingredient of dry air

< TD>



Volume fraction?


Volume Score

< P> (× 10)

? (× 10)





Nitric oxide






Carbon DC CO2




Nitric Dioxide



1.0 ~ 1.2

The components in the atmosphere are unstable. Whether it is natural disasters, or human influence, there will be new substances in the atmosphere, or the content of some ingredients excessively exceeds the average of natural states, or some ingredient content Reduce, will affect the normal development and growth of the organism, resulting in harm to humans, which is the main object of environmental protection workers.

Hierarchical Features

The entire atmosphere exhibits different characteristics as height, divided into a trip-bearing layer, a flat-flow layer, an ozone layer, an intermediate layer, a hot layer, and a scattered layer, and it is the integrity. Space.


1, definition

The lowest layer of the atmosphere is located at the lowest layer of the atmosphere, starting from the surface of the earth to high altitude until the top of the flow layer, the starting point of the flat layer . The average thickness is about 12 kilometers, its thickness is different, its thickness is 8 km over the earth, 17 kilometers over the equator, is the most dense layer of the atmosphere, concentrated about 75% atmospheric mass and 90%. The above water vapor quality. The lower boundary is connected to the ground, and the upper height varies with geolocation and season. Its height is different from the latitude, with average height in the low latitude region of 17 to 18 kilometers, averages 10 ~ 12 kilometers in the mid-latitude region, 8 to 9 km, and the summer is higher than in winter.

2, characteristics:

(1) Decrease with the increase in height: This is because the layer cannot directly absorb the short-wave radiation of the sun, but can absorb long wave radiation in the ground reflection. Heat the atmosphere from the lower pad. Therefore, the air close to the ground is much hot, and the air away from the ground is low. 1 km per liter, the temperature is about 6.5 degrees.

(2) Air convection: Because the rock circle is hot and the surface of the water circle is hot, the heat radiation will grind the lower air, and the cold air air is convected vertically, and since there is a sea and land in the ground, The difference between day and night and the difference in latitude, so there is a difference in temperature in different regions, which forms air level movement.

(3) Temperature, humidity and other elements are uneven: atmospheric and surface contact, water vapor, dust, microorganisms, and toxic substances produced by human activities into the air layer, so the airflow is made Outside the vertical and horizontal exercise, the chemical process is very active, and with the gas group to get cold or heat, water vapor form a series of weather phenomena such as rain, snow, hail, frost, dew, cloud, fog.

Table Fluid layer

1, definition

The atmosphere of 10 to 50 km from the area. Located above the stream, under the scattered layer. The flat floral layer is also known as the same temperature layer, which is one of the hot cold in the earth atmosphere, which is divided into different temperature layers, and the high temperature layer is placed at the top, and the low temperature layer is placed at the bottom.

2, Features

It is just the opposite of the triggered layer that is close to the surface therein, and the flow layer is cold. In the mid-latitude area, the flat layer is located at a height of 10 to 50 kilometers from the ground, and in the polar, this layer begins with 8 km from the ground watch. Top of the stream until 50 kilometers above sea level, the airflow is mainly manifested in the horizontal direction, and the convection phenomenon is weakened. This big gas layer is called "flat flow layer", also known as "same temperature layer". There is basically no water vapor, sunny, rarely occurring weather changes, suitable for airplane navigation. At 20 to 30 kilometers, oxygen molecules form an ozone layer under ultraviolet rays, protecting the organisms on the earth from the solar ultraviolet rays and high energy particles.

Intermediate layer

1, defined

The middle layer is also known as the middle layer. The self-stationary layer is topped to the atmosphere between 85 kilometers.

2, characteristics

This layer is low due to low ozone content, while the solar short-wave radiation that can be directly absorbed by nitrogen and oxygen is largely absorbed by the upper atmosphere, so the temperature is vertical. The decreasing rate is very large, and the flow is strong. The temperature near the intermediate layer is about 190K; the air molecules can be ionized after the solar ultraviolet radiation, which is used to the D layer of the ionospheric layer; sometimes in the high latitude area in the summer evening, there is no nightlight cloud.


ionization layer

1, defining the ionization layer is an ionization region of the earth atmosphere. The entire Earth atmosphere of more than 60 kilometers is in partially ionized or completely ionized state, and the ionization layer is partially ionized atmosphere, and the fully ionized atmosphere is called the magnetic layer. Some people also refer to the entire ionization atmosphere as an ionospheric layer, which regards the magnetic layer as part of the ionosphere. It is about 10 to 80 km from the surface of the earth. The dissipation layer is above the warm layer and is composed of charged particles.

2, characteristics

Except for the Earth, Venus, Mars and Jupitar have an ionosphere. The ionosphere starts from about 50 kilometers from the ground to a high-level atmospheric aerial domain of about 1000 kilometers, including quite a number of free electrons and ions, which enables radio waves to change the propagation speed, refractive, reflection, and scattering, generating polarization. The rotation of the face is also absorbed by varying degrees.


1, defining an outer layer, a scattered layer, and the hot layer is above the outer atmosphere, extends to 1000 km from the surface of the earth. The temperature here is high, with thousands of degrees; the atmosphere is extremely thin, and its density is one million in the sea level.

2, characteristics

The atmosphere is also called a magnetic layer. It is the outermost layer of the atmosphere. It is the region where the atmosphere transition to the interstellar space, there is no obvious boundary outside. Under normal circumstances, the upper limit is low in the vicinity of the geophysical pole, and the near-magnetic equator is over the sun side, about 9 to 10 earth radiuss, in other words, about 65,000 kilometers. Here is extremely thin. Usually, within 1000 kilometers, ie, the ionization layer is usually used as the height of the atmosphere, that is, the atmospheric layer is 1000 kilometers thick.

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