From the age of the universe is less than a second, in the extreme heat density state, and is full of protons, neutrons, electrons and other elementary particles mixed
αβγ theory when the body is working. In the 1940s, George Gamow and his students Ralph Alfie proved that when the universe cooled from this state fireball expansion, 75% of these particles will be contained in the proton mass (hydrogen nuclei) shape retention down to 25% is converted to α particles (helium nuclei). This old star is formed in adolescence universe observed spectroscopically mixing ratio matching substance, stars and galaxies and explained 99% of the visible material comes from.
αβγ paper Origin
Although these calculations are published in the form of doctoral thesis Alfie, but Gamow deemed worthy of the exchange on a wider scale. So he wrote a paper vote for "Physical Review" magazine. At this time, his humor dominate him. As he later in his "creation of the universe" (Viking Press, New York, published in 1952), a book written, "only here the article signed by Alfie and Gamow, it seems unfair to the Greek alphabet, so we (absent) plus the name of Dr. Hans .A. Bet. "I was quite pleased that in addition to really make Gamow's name signed to three people, but also coincidentally published in the magazine's April 1, 1948 on one; until today there has been three authors according to their surnames Alfie, Bethe, Gamow and called it "αβγ" papers. Later in 1948, compared with Alfie and Robert Herman to promote this theory, the universe must be predicted today everywhere filled with a temperature of about 5K of background radiation.